The architecture of the Roman Empire as the original art, has formed at the time of IV-I centuries BC. Romans initiated a completely new era in world architecture, which constituted most of the public facilities. Architecture of Rome is unparalleled in height and similar to the engineering, types of buildings, the richness of compositional forms, and the scale of construction as it was in the ancient world. The Romans introduced the engineering structures as architectural objects in urban, rural and landscape ensemble, using new building constructions.
Hellenistic art has been equally important in the development of Roman culture with its architecture, gravitated to a grand scale and the urban centers. But the humanistic principle, noble grandeur and harmony that are the foundation of Greek art in Rome, gave way to exalt the power of emperors’ trends. Variety of structures and scale of construction in ancient Rome is considerably different from other countries, such as Greece.
Squares of Rome and other cities were decorated with triumphal arches in honor of military victories, statues of emperors and personalities of people of the state. Construction of the triumphal arches and columns was primarily political significance and served as a means of propaganda. For example, a 30-meter column of Trajan decorated spiral frieze depicting military exploits of Trajan. There are different allegorical figures such as the Danube in the image of a majestic old man, Night - a woman with a veiled face, etc. A lot of allegorical figures are present in the relief. It is the evidence of the creative approach to architecture. Separate figures are very realistic, therefore, they are valuable resource for the study of weapons, armor and costumes of romans. Column of Trajan has caused a wave of imitators. We can see the majestic columns in the capitals of many countries in Europe, for example a Vendome Column.
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