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Z score results from the runs test and usually indicates, whether a system has fewer or more streaks of consecutive losses and wins than a random distribution.  Z calculated is a Z score calculated from a given system. In statistics, Z calculated is compared to Z statistics in order to determine whether a hypothesis will be rejected or accepted (Hays, 1994). Unlike Z statistics, which is looked directly from the Z table, Z calculated needs calculation from a given distribution.

The Z table is a statistical table used for normal distributions. The table helps in indicating what percentage is represented under the curve at any given point. When an individual wants to determine the area between two points under a normal curve, the Z table helps in determining such area since the Z table indicates the area under the normal curve for any values between mean, zero and any given Z value. The Z table generates the area under the curve directly.

Alpha is the threshold value against which p-values are measured. It indicates how extreme the observed results need to be so as to reject a null hypothesis of a given significance test. The alpha value is usually associated with the confidence level of a test. For a b% level of confidence, the resulting value of alpha is 1 – b/100. For instance, the value of alpha for 90% level of confidence is 0.10. The value of alpha usually indicates the probability of having a type 1 error (Healey, 2012).

P-value is a probability, which indicates that an observed statistic happens by chance alone. All test statistics have subsequent p-values or probabilities (Agarwal, 2007). Since there are different test statistics, there are various ways of finding p-values. The p-value of a given test statistic shows how extreme the statistic is for a given sample data. In statistics, the small the p-value the more unlikely is the observed sample (Healey, 2012).

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Discussion Questions

Question 1

In carrying out its research regarding persons with disabilities, ODO concentrated on physically limiting disabilities; there was no inclusion of mental or emotional disabilities. According to the research conducted, the definition of adults with disabilities concentrated on those individuals having physical limitations such as the blind, deaf, or individuals with conditions that limit them from physical activities like climbing stairs, walking, carrying and lifting. The definition was remarkably narrow since it did not include all individuals with disabilities. Concentrating on individuals with physical disabilities implied that individuals with other disabilities such as mental and emotional disabilities were left out in the study. Therefore, the definition was not inclusive.

Question 2

The research involved the focus of hotels and airlines; this assisted in narrowing the concentration or focus of the research. The research also comprised telephone interview and online surveys. This made the research be completed fast. In addition, in designing the survey questions, business representatives and adults having disabilities became involved. There was a potential problem in pairing the items; there could be a mismatch in paring the items, which could lead to flaws in the survey. The research should have used less comparison since not all items pair. Strength in the research was the use of computer in generating all pairings and several sets. This made it simple and swift in generating the outcome of the research.

Question 3

Dual methodology involves the use of two methods in conducting a survey. In the study, telephone interviews and the use of online approaches were utilized in collecting information from adults having disabilities. One of the pros of the approach used in the study is that a vast number, who cannot be reached through one method, will be reached through the other. Besides, the hybrid approach used in this study ensures collection of information within an exceedingly short period. On the other hand, the approach used could limit the number of participants since not all adults having disabilities have access to telephones or the internet.

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Question 4

Assuming that I have no background information regarding adults having disabilities, I would consider interacting with these individuals first before carrying out the study. Besides, I would consider digging out information from earlier researches, which other firms have conducted. ODO did not first interact with adults having disabilities in order to have firsthand information concerning their experiences. In addition, ODO did not dig out information from early researches that were conducted. ODO could have gained firsthand experiences of adults having disabilities, which could have aided in the completion of the research.

Question 5

Some of the potential hotel, restaurant and rental car accommodations that could be evaluated for adults having disabilities include; Starbucks, Thomas Jefferson, Redmont, Sixt car rental, and Auto Europe. Some of the paired questions include; how are the washrooms in the hotels? Do they consider the adults having disabilities? Do car rental have special considerations for adults having disabilities? Are the provisions satisfactory? During a phone interview, the paired comparison question could take approximately three minutes. The advantage of using this measurement is that it is possible to approximate the time that the interview will take given an approximate number of persons that will take part in the interview. A disadvantage is that the measurement may not be accurate since individuals differ with the ability to give out information in a telephone; some may take more time than projected.

Question 6

Some of the research, management and investigative questions driving the next study may include the following:

  • How is the management going to deal with the problems encountered by adults having disabilities?
  • Are there more problems facing adults having disabilities apart from the shared ones?
  • Is information collected valid and accurate regarding adults having disabilities?
  • How should hospitality and travel organizations deliver supportive services to adults having disabilities?

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