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Question 1

Psychology is clearly traced all the way back during the time of early Greeks. Till late 1800s psychology had not emerged as a separate discipline. It was during 17th century that Rene Descartes, who was a French Philosopher, brought forward the idea of dualism. Rene Descartes was both a famous mathematician as well as a scientist. He is a warded a number of psychological credit due to his idea about mind and body. He affirmed that mind and body indeed were two entities in which their interaction forms human experience.  He said that although these two entities influence each other there is a split existing between the two. He had a strong belief that the site which was actively involved in the interaction of the mind and body was the pineal gland due to its location in the head and being surrounded by the brain. As a result of this Rene Descartes was referred to as the father of modern psychology (Alanen, 2003).

During the year 1600 most people had a feeling that mind and body were functioning all together as a single entity. They thought that mind operated like a puppeteer which was involved in pulling of strings with an aim of controlling the body. It was at this time that Descartes came up with a new idea. In his idea he developed a theory that mind together with the body were in deed two entities that had separate functions but had very close interaction. He formulated a claim in which he attested that body was solely responsible for the physical aspect of it self while on the other hand mind bears the responsibility of all the aspects of thinking (Alanen, 2003)..

Through the separation of the mind and body and as well as making the brain to hold the main point in respect to the functioning of the mind, Rene Descartes ended up changing the way in which mind was being studied as well as ended up influencing discovery of new ideas by other people especially in respect to brain. This ended up changing the way in which people conducted their thought as well as acquired new knowledge. Through his new ideas, Rene Descartes actually opened doors in pursuit of studying the mind which later formed the basis of the modern psychology (Brown, 2006).

Rene Descartes introduced the idea of interaction of mind and body which was commonly known as dualism. This idea had a number of limitations. One of the limitations which faced this idea was the lack of a rational understanding of how it was possible for the interaction of brain and mind to take place. This led to development of an argument which depended upon a presumption that there was no supernatural as well as any other realm or dimension which had an account for the existing interaction (Brown, 2006)..

Another limitation for this idea was seen when a question was developed regarding the ultimate consequences in the event of a damaged brain. It was based on the knowledge that in the event of a brain damage resulting from a physical trauma, drug abuse or even as a result of a pathological disease mental our mental powers are not compromised. It is perceived that if the brain and the mind were indeed separate then our mental powers would not be compromised. Rene Descartes failed to put into consideration a number of ideas regarding psychology while he was discussing the issue of Mind and the body. He did not show they are influenced by the environment as individual developed in different settings which are considered as a key issue in psychology (Brown, 2006). 

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Question 2

Locke developed the idea concerning the mind where at first he disagreed with Descartes and came up with a theory that knowledge was any sought of idea which seemed clear as well as distinct to each and every person. He further claimed that knowledge is any sought of a direct awareness in respect to facts which concerned the agreement or even a disagreement among number of ideas. In the sense of ideas, Locke was referring to mental objects. He had an assumption that these mental objects were a representation of a particular non-mental object. By this he meant that we have in particular knowledge of a world which is found externally to our own minds (

He had a belief that, even though we have very little knowledge on certainty and in a number of cases we tend to rely on probabilities, he associated this with our God given obligation where we are expected to `obtain knowledge on our own behalf and not necessarily be involved in acquiring of beliefs or just accepting the word which come from our authorities. Locke attested that at birth our own mind does not have any sought of ideas and hence considered as a tabula rasa. As we continue to grow our mind progressively continues to gain ideas which come from sensation. Through the process of combination, division as well as generalization our mind is able to form some sought of complex ideas. In order to be able to have our children being developed in a way that they shun away from the bad habits in relation to thinking he said that these children to obtain training in order to be able to base their beliefs in relation to sound evidence. They are supposed to learn on how to be able to collect these evidences and be able to believe less strongly in some cases when the evidence is deemed to be weaker (

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is also well known about his theory on mind. In respect to the mind he developed a number of principles where a number of them concerned the issues to do with the mind.  One of the principles was about the sufficient reason as well as the law of contradiction. Leibniz is said to employs a number of his predicate in the matters regarding the subject theory of the truth while thorough accounting on the reality. In the Leibniz’s universe, God was in existence together with a number of composite, immaterial with a number of souls like entities called monads (James, 2004)..

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Both Locke and Leibniz focused on the philosophy of the mind when they were looking on the issues concerning sleep and unconsciousness’. Locke in his support for the idea of mind he attest that any thinking which does not involve memory is not basically thinking. He further said that any person may not be able to think well if he failed to involve his short term memory. In this argument concurred with Rene Descartes in respect to the interaction of mind and body. Leibniz brings the issue of mind and conquers with Rene Descartes while drawing his comparison concerning sleep and the periphery of the consciousness. He agrees on the fact that the mind and the body work together during that time of sleep (James, 2004).

Locke and Leibniz differ with Rene Descartes in that Rene Descartes denied that while we are a sleep we are conscious. He said that when one is sleep the mind stopped to think he supported this by saying that sleep was generally a pause of our thought. This was differed by Locke and Leibniz who said that while one was asleep mind was still active and the thinking process was still going on. The only thing that was limited was the physical activity by our body (James, 2004).

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