The cinematography of the Soviet period represents an idea of creation of realistic films and cartoons that would bring some sort of good attitude and friendship to the society. People that are depicted in all examples of cinematography as loving and caring parents, who may have some problems with understanding their kids but usually at the end of a cartoon or film they come to realization of the fact that their child needs a friend. Most of the films depict ironically human relations and this adds the feeling of bitterness to the main idea of every film of that time. Human relations are always depicted to promote the kind against the evil and prove to others that there are no other ways to achieve harmony in this world but through friendship and positive attitude to each other.
Although the whole life was hard for people during the period of 30th and 60th but people managed to preserve all good qualities of human character and it is seen in relations and within the situations that were created with the help of cinematography. The most evident effect of showing moral laws and teaching a lesson of good to people is represented in soviet cartoons of the period of the years of 1950-1960. It is not for nothing that genre of cartoon was chosen for that aim.
Cartoon is not just a product of media environment, but also an art form and it has a great educational potential. Through cartoons children as well as adults can see different emotions: happiness, empathize, cry, friendship and the necessity to do everything together. As it was one of the main principles of the after war time in the USSR, those people had to do everything together and combine their powers to renovate the country and to become a strong and powerful community again. It is known that children’s art is a form of knowledge of the world that plays a role of "senior companion" to children, which shows them "what is good and what is bad", teaches what penalties may follow the wrong actions and what positive results can cause the right thing.
Through cartoons, the cinematographers can show different things like: phenomena, names, words, and humorous situations. The idea that promoted the creation of kind cartoons was that for the effective education of children they should see good examples to follow. For example, the cartoon Hedgehog in the Fog tells the story of friendship of Hedgehog and Bear, their mutual affection and care about each other.
In 1975, the studio “Soyuzmultfilm” released animated film Hedgehog in the Fog, which after many years was considered the best animated film of all time. This masterpiece was directed by animator Yuri Norstein on the story of Sergei Kozlov. In the story, Hedgehog is in a hurry to meet the Bear to have some tea and count the stars. He carries a gift for a friend - his favorite raspberry jam, but on the way he sees a horse standing in a fog and it distracts Hedgehog’s attention. Forgetting that he was going to meet the Bear, he rushes into the fog and gets lost. The Bear hears the shouts of Hedgehog and goes to help him. After that they both sit soaking their tea and counting the stars. This story is one of the most touching examples of friendship between the people and their readiness to help each other in every difficult situation.
A lot of positive moments are seen in the cartoons like Nu Pogodi! that were the most popular cartoons during the period after Soviet Union and children were enjoying the analogue of American cartoon Tom and Jerry that depicted two main characters of Wolf and a Hare. Wolf is the one, who always wants to catch a Hare, and the later is the one, who always wants to escape. But, it is funny when something bad happens to Wolf a Hare is always there to sympathize or sometimes laugh at the situation.
If to speak about the movies of the late 50’s – 60’s, they arise a qualitatively new problem fields, barely touched upon in the previous period. First of all, it is a problem of urbanization, contrasting urban and rural mentality, way of life in town and country. In many movies, the city serves as a cold, rational principle, opposed to sincerity, naturalness, partly naivety of rural life. But the cultural meanings behind the city and the countryside in the films of 60’s are not so clear. The image of the city is sometimes painted in a romantic tone, but it is another romance, other than the romance of rural life. Another new idea for Soviet cinema since the 50’s is the problem field called "children's theme." Childhood and adolescence is not conceptualized as a special world, the children behave like little adults, immediately joined the struggle for socialism and communism.
In "school" movies of 50 – 60’s period the world of childhood and the world of youth are depicted as special worlds with internal logic and life according to their special laws. This is reflected in the daily behavior of children: in addition to clumsy imitation of adults, they have specific children’s and teenage gestures and intonation. In contrast to the normative images of war, in the films of 40’s - early 50’s late 50’s – 60’s years of the war are remarkable for The Cranes Are Flying, Ballad of a Soldier, The House I Live In and other movies that are focused on individual lives, in the existential experience of people, pushing the individual and the universal. In the movies, the comparison of the two types of everyday life are depicted as well, that is the normative life of war and peace-time life that lives in the memories of heroes or in bright flashes through the military way of life.
If to speak about work relationships, an important educational role is played by the team. Family and private lives of the characters usually remain behind the scenes in the art space of this period. During the period of late 50’s producer interests are shifted from public to private space, and socially determined by the individual person. One of the most important socio-cultural environments, which reveal the individuality, becomes a family. In this case, the image of the family dynamics of the process can be described as a movement from the epic monumental to realism. The directors pay a lot of attention to single-parent families, the clash of urban and rural lifestyles, generational conflict, the status of women as militants, working, or farmers, as well as housewives and homemakers.
The task of realistic images of residential interiors is becoming important in the movies of late 50's - 60's. In the pictures of the previous period, images of interiors and domestic environment of the characters were associated with the genre of the movie. In the representation of interiors, "domestic comedy" or dramas selected "sign", content and ideologically loaded elements. In the sixties, a movie is intended to avoid a straight ideological concept and show life in all its breadth and diversity (Beumers 75-112). Here is the scientist roving on hostels and hotels that are inhabited by urban intellectuals and the middle class, yesterday's farmers who have moved from the countryside to the city, residents of housing estates, who still preserve the traditional way of the peasants.
Speaking of urban interiors in films of the sixties, they can be divided into three types: the interior of the accommodation, communal apartments and hotel interiors, or other types of temporary housing. Separate apartment reflects high income, social status, and often more or less explicit individualism of the owner, living in a communal are usually people of middle and low income, who appreciate collectivist values, hotels and hostels are characteristics of certain marginal characters (Horton 94-105). Analysis of interior allows much more detailed classification. Watching as a room or apartment is filled with character’s items, such as cleaned bed that hangs on the walls, or the books on the bookshelf. It can be assumed to host high-level officials and the clerk, petty bourgeois and intellectual, socially successful person and marginal.
Public space in the films of 30-50’s is impersonal, becoming a regulatory background, but by regulatory behavior of the characters. The action takes place in collective farms, small towns, workers' settlements, in the 60’s it is moved to the big cities like Moscow or Leningrad. Not only the choice of location, but also the approach to the image of the environment is different. City becomes a living thing. Its soul is directly correlated with the soul of the characters. If the hero is a romantic person it is seen even in the quiet corners of the statement, hidden from the eyes of the crowd, squares, old buildings, if the hero is a rationalist and a skeptic, the city is usually presented as new buildings, streams of cars and built in them vigorous stream of people. If to speak about comedies, the most favorite comedy is Irony of Fate or Enjoy Your Bath, Prisoner of the Caucasus, Operation Y, The Diamond Arm, Garage and many others. In general, the Soviet comedy is about the relationship of people at home, at work and in other places. Soviet films are simple and sometimes naive. But they differ from others with their clear and kind ideas, good sense of humor and belief in the better future that is waiting for all the people in the future.
In general, all these movies and cartoons differ from those that are made by other or national directors by their high morality and ideals that have to promote these high ideological thoughts to people starting with children and finishing with adults. The movies and cartoons of the Soviet times show a kindness and evil and reveal all positive and kind features in people for those, who watch these movies, and even would be able to see without a little hint. Social relationships meant to promote good attitude and positive thinking in relation to the happy future that is waiting for all the people if they become friendly and will start taking care of each other. No matter how old these cartoons will become but people all over the world enjoy their good humor and the general idea of good moral lessons that is possible to see in all of them. All cartoons of the Soviet time are the best teaching materials for kids to grow with the realization of good and evil in their minds.
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