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The number of children born with the HIV and AIDS virus was at its peak in the 1990s, when the twin epidemic struck. The mothers had no idea of their status until their children were diagnosed with the virus. Most of those babies died prematurely because of lack of quality care during and after pregnancy. However, the situation changed in 1994 with the discovery of AZT medication administered to pregnant women. The medication decreased the chances of transmitting the virus to the unborn babies. The current studies by the Centers of Disease, Control and Prevention show that the probability of passing the virus from the infected mothers to their children is less than two percent. The number of children exposed to HIV before birth has reduced to 73 children annually from the initial 900 cases. Such a result can be attributed to the routing testing done on pregnant women to diagnose the HIV infections. The children who were not lucky enough to get prevention from getting the virus have to live a life full of stigma from their peers and struggle with the health issues associated with HIV. The children benefit from the program that gives them comprehensive medical and social services when they begin attending daycare centers. Children born with the HIV virus have a poor development scores and their cognitive abilities are lower than those of children with no exposure to the virus. The children development scores improved with administering of antiretroviral treatment within the 12th week after birth.  The main means of transmission of the virus is through mother to child, and the use of antiretroviral helps reduce the effects of the virus on both the child and the mother.

Dean, H. D., Fenton, K. A. (2010). Addressing social determinants of health in the

prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted

infections, and tuberculosis. Journal of Public Health Reports (PHR), 125 (4)

The given journal is about social determinants that are applicable in prevention and control of HIV and AIDS. The article focuses on the innovation that is applied in the framework of addressing epidemics caused by HIV. It also discusses how socio-determinants affect the health of people. The impacts of HIV and AIDS on young children are so serious that even lead to mortality among the infants. The inequalities associated with social disparities are a major cause of the risky behaviors that put unborn children at risk of getting infections. The prevalence of diseases depends on the social and environmental determinants that create the patterns of infections in any population. The journal addresses different factors that determine the risk factors affecting a population.

The first determinant is the community and societal characteristics. They show that people of certain communities have a higher risk of being infected, while others have a lower risk, even if they are living under the same conditions. The income and social status of a family determines their ability to seek health care. Women are at a higher risk of becoming sexual workers if they are insecure about their source of income. Stigma is another determinant that has a direct impact on the health seeking behavior of a HIV positive person. The article then addresses the measures that can be taken to address these social determinants.

The journal helps one understand how a child born with HIV copes with the determinants that are beyond his or her control and how this factors affects children’s lives. Stigma, for example, intimidates the child and hinders a good growth rate of academics and health.

Childress, S. (2012, July 13). “It’s a part of me”: Meet the young people born with HIV.       ENDGAME: AIDS in Black America. Frontline. Retrieved from

The given article looks at social issues affecting youth and children born with HIV and AIDs. The issue provides a summary of the mortality rates of infants in the early 1990s before the inception of AZT. The routine pregnancies checkups have reduced the level of mortality of infants and increased their immunity. The article provides the interviews of young people, who were not lucky to get protection before birth. The youths tell how difficult it is for them to deal with stigma and recurrent health issues. The children expose themselves to behaviors that increase their risks of being re-infected with the virus because of lack of social support The children have to struggle with the side effects of the medicine, which in some cases makes them lose their memories. The article shows how the society can help the children with HIV or make their lives even more difficult by stigmatizing them.

Fien, J. (1996). Teaching for a sustainable world: Environmental education for a new century. Teaching for a Sustainable World (International Edition). Griffith University for the UNESCO-UNEP International Environmental Education Programme, XVIII.

The environmental and social issues affect health of the children who require a kind and supportive environment. The links between the politics, economic issues, ecology and social life have a great influence on the health of a person and especially on a child living with HIV. The child’s survival is put at risk if there is no guarantee of security of social and ecological aspects of its life. Proper education and a supportive environment help the child develop a sense of belonging and hence create an environment that protects him or her from stigmatization. The given journal explains how the security of the child depends on its environment and how the education curriculum can help integrate the students into the society to help them accept their status and explore their potentials.

Le Doaré, K., Bland, R., and Newell, M. (2012).Neurodevelopment in children born to HIV-infected mothers by infection and treatment status. Journal of Pediatrics (130) 5.

The given article reviews the effects of antiretroviral therapy on the neurodevelopment of a child and the risks the child normally faces. The article also shows that children exposed to the virus at the early stages of their life have poor coordination, memory, language comprehension. What is more, their behaviors were different from those of other children. The link between the socio-ecological factors and the neurodevelopment of the child is evident in how children in poor resource setting showed decreased reaction to medication. 

Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome Demand for Health and Medical Care
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