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The West Nile is considered to be one of the most dangerous viruses, which can be developed from mosquitoes and birds. According to the research, WNV has been spread and developed in the countries mainly with hot climate, for example, in the Middle East, West Asia, and Africa. It was observed for the first time in 1937. It was considered to be rare and sporadic to the mid-1990s. Nowadays, WNV has spread all over the world, what makes the great threat to people`s health. In 1999, it was first identified in NYC. WNV has affected Europe, the United States, Canada, Africa, and Asia. That is why professional authorities are alarming for protective treatment for this disease.

Various species of mosquitoes are the vector of transmission of WNV. The research asserts that the prime carriers of this virus are birds, mainly passerines. The infection is found in humans, crocodiles, alligators, and amphibians, which are also important vectors of the virus. It is worth noting that not all animal species are considered to be the vectors of WNV and its transmission. Experts consider that WNV may become worse, because climate gets hotter. That is why this virus will be getting more dangerous in the nearest future. High temperatures provide an increase of mosquito breeding, therefore, the danger of development of WNV is raised. 

Some experts assert that there could be a new strain of the virus, which would cause the disease to spread more rapidly. They, obviously, came to this conclusion, because the number of infected and dead birds is increasing annually. When mosquitoes bite infected birds, they also catch the virus and then may transmit it to humans. When humans have been bitten by mosquitoes, it can take 2-12 days for the incubation period. In most cases, human feel fever, body aches, headache, and swollen lymph glands. These symptoms are very much the same as flu-like symptoms. Sometimes the virus can damage human brain. As a result, patients, who are infected by the virus, will have dangerous consequences, such as muscle weakness, paralysis, and death. Fortunately, these are rather rare cases, approximately this may occur in 1 percent of accidents.

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The research asserts that about 80% percent of infected people do not have any symptoms. Moreover, the West Nile virus is not passed from human to human. In case the infection occurs, patients are able to recover by their own. According to the available information, there is no treatment for WNV. Actually, there was no need to investigate this disease before, because cases of infection were rather rare. The situation has been changed recently, when WNV has been spread in Europe and the USA. Doctors and experts are alarming for the future spread of this virus. Therefore, more and more people will need medical assistance. Many WNV infection experts assert that there is no protection from this virus. Some of them consider that the only thing they can do is to let the disease run its course.

According to the research, the first incident of WNV was observed in the United States in 1999. Initially, many experts considered it to be very rare. The situation has been changed today. Public health authorities reported about the rise of this virus in summer 2012. For example, there were cases of infection in California last August. The available information reports that cases of WNV occurred in Texas, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Michigan. As there is no effective treatment or vaccine, doctors advise to prevent mosquitoes to infect humans. Personal protective measures have to be provided in order to protect them from the virus.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that public health authorities have to be ready to

protect people from the West Nile virus and work out programs and vaccines. Due to

the climate change, this virus may become more severe in the future.

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