Elections are one of the important events in the history of the state. The presidential election in the U.S.A., of course, became one of the main events of the year not just in the U.S., but around the world. The U.S elections 2012 were on the front pages of all worldwide publications. The first two media "splash" is clearly superimposed on the first and second rounds of the presidential debate (October 3, it was in Denver, 16 - in Hampstead). The third round of public debate between Barack Obama and Mitt Romney (22 October - Boca Raton) has attracted little less media attention (Reston, Maeve. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 18, 2011). "The election process" combines the publication on the electoral campaign in the general rankings of candidates, their campaign trips around the country, and the nature of the U.S. electoral system. The articles included in the group of the "Results" focused on the voting results, the first steps of Obama's re-election, and projections for the future U.S. policy.
Interest groups sponsor the media of political campaign advertisement around the world. Interest groups have the leading role in the presidential elections, and the USA is not an exception. The television advertisement proposes the formula for success; they think that the spending on negatory ads is more effective. The electioneering for the media is also spread with the help of airwaves. President Obama preserved the fundamental role in both Facebook and Twitter. He had 27 million followers to the end of the election (Boston Globe. November 9, 2012).
It sounds ironical, but namely the digital recourses have the possibility to revive the epoch when the personal interaction of the candidate with the electors can bring him the votes. The increase of the digital capabilities enabled different ways of approaching electors.. Also. it is observed that a candidate has to fulfill the requirements of the voters. The social platform has become the main area for the exchange of news, thoughts, and forecasts in the election. Nowadays, the social networks such as Facebook and Twitter became so popular that for the candidates, it is an excellent opportunity to gain additional votes. It provides a huge support for candidates helping to develop the topic of the election among PC, laptops, and mobile devices users and to inform people about the campaign and the election. The audience transformed into the media; the users are sources of information, increasing the effect of the comments, popular opinion, and the influence on their own social circle. Before the elections, Facebook introduced a map of voting which helped to see how many people shared with their friends the massage “I went to the 2012 election” (The Washington Post. October 24, 2012). Video service YouTube is broadcasting major events; it had a special channel YouTube Elections Hub which covered the basic political issues before and during elections and the discussions between the competitors. At the beginning of 2012, the social network Google has become the platform to broadcast the dialogues between Obama and Romney. For this purpose, there was created the function Google+ “Hangouts”. Twitter got a great platform for discussions, it also contained voters’ opinions; with the help of it, people could make an assumption about the results of the elections. The candidates also used the application in spite of their own pages on social networks. It gave their followers the opportunity to find out much more information about the news of parties and the results of campaigns in live mode.
The campaign financing the presidential election became a record. They spent more than $ 2 billion. The record was the number of candidates (27) fighting for the U.S. presidency in different states. The funds had four money streams in 2012: the campaign of Obama and the campaign of Romney, DNC and RNC, and PACs. All of them had to give the reports to the Federal Election Commission. The media requires the huge funds. The basic part of financing campaign was spent on advertisement (it includes television, radio, newspapers, billboards, social networks, different meeting with voters, and agitation program), mail, payment for workers and crowd financing. Thus, the spending on the ads of Barack Obama made $ 239 million, and the candidate Mitt Romney spent $ 273 million. The payroll of Obama cost $ 102 thousand while his opponent laid out only $ 50 thousand.
Barack Obama (Democrat), Mitt Romney (Republican), Gary Johnson (Libertarian), Jill Stein (Green), and Virgil Goode (Constitution) took part in the American elections in 2012. Finally, the fighting for the presidential seat flamed up between Obama and Romney. These two candidates gained the highest rating of the elections – 47% and 40%. There were also three minor parties gaining 5% altogether: Gary Johnson had 3 %, Jill Stein – 1%, and Virgil Goode – 0, 5% (The Washington Post. October 24, 2012).
Regarding the polarization of the society, there is observed a big divergence of priorities of the different political forces in America. The society has high hopes for a change in course and thought believing that each decision can change their fate. Barack Obama was reelected as the president; nevertheless, the government continues to be divided in spite of the determined choice of the nation. Democrats led by Obama make the majority; Republicans led by Romney still regulate the House of Representatives. Thereby, the economic prospects of the United States are determined because of the disagreement between two political forces. Each side does not have a strong mandate to come to the mutual decision. It will be difficult for the Senate to find the right way of solving the problem. Polarization in the government after the elections prevents conducting policy. Each side tries to interfere with its own political system and new ideas in relation to economical situation in the country to improve the different system in the whole parties of the state.
A lot of administrators bear responsibility for organization and holding elections in the U.S.A. and also summing-up and announcement of the results. They have the significant and complicated set of assignments — establishment the precise dates for elections, ensuring the rights of candidates, enrollment of voters and production of voter lists and voting facilities, planning ballots, arrangement a large number of labor force to control the voting on Election Day, and certification the results.
The process of the U.S. presidential election was an unexpected event. The voting process includes in two phases. To participate in the elections, the voters need to register; then they get into the national lists. The citizens vote close to their home. In case a person moves in another state, he/she needs to register again at his new address. The registration system was operated to obviate cheat, but the process passes from state to state for the registered voters. Recently, the country has adopted more difficult registration; for instance, the voters have to show identity card. There is also restriction of the voter enrollment drives and abolition of the registration on Election Day. The presidential elections are held in the United States in two steps system. Then, the Electoral College elects the future head of the state. The constitution of the College consists of 538 people. The number of electors from a state should be equal to the number of its representatives in the U.S. Congress. A candidate should receive at least 270 votes to win. Each state makes their lists of electors. The party affiliation of electors who will vote determines whose candidates who receive more votes. In some states, a candidate can win with the large majority; in others states – to lose with the slight difference. The number of electors from each state in the U.S. is determined by the censure of enumeration which is conducted every 10 years. The population census of 2010 became a new base for the distribution of 538 votes among the states.
The number of people who took part in the presidential elections in the United States has no legal counting, so there is no formal method of calculation of voter turnout. Particularly, the problem of accurate calculation is connected to the lack of a general federal registry of voters. The procedure of the active registration practices in the field (citizens should express their desire to participate in the election), its methods, and electoral qualification may vary from state to state. Nevertheless, the experts and academics (political scientists, sociologists) as well as the media paid to this indicator a lot of attention. They can use three main methods of calculating turnout – the total number of people in the country who have reached the age of suffrage to vote (from 18 years): firstly, it depends on the number of citizens with elective franchise, and secondly, the number of registered voters.
Social groups are the main subject of politics, which are included in a specific way in a competitive relationship concerning the government. In general, the group fixes the similarity of people, both innate feature and gaining features during the life.
The experience shows that the interconnection of interest groups and their various relationships have a significant impact on the political processes. The promotion of group interests in the sphere of public authority specifies for the formation of special institutions that have the opportunity to influence the state corresponding to needs of social groups. These aspects make the contents of the social representation.
The basic elements of the system are, first of all, the sources and cause of political participation, secondly, the process of self-organization, and lastly, the formation of representative structures and its interaction with the government.
The presidential elections in the United States were successful and confident. Barack Obama was sure in his victory, because he gained 332 votes and became the 57-th president (BBC News. November 8, 2012. Retrieved November 10, 2012).
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