Corruption is deviation from superlative norms of the society. Moral or spiritual impurity, impunity, bribery and embezzlement give further descriptions of corruption, as explained by Kochan. Corruption is a vice that exists throughout the world, both in the developed and developing countries, as evidenced by Heaton. In recent years the attention paid to corruption has significantly increased due to an increase in awareness of the loss and cost of corruption, high corruption cases in industrialized nations, and changes in politics and economics currently experienced by many countries.
Corruption in Africa
Corruption in Africa is the most widespread and costly. Research studies and investigations reveal high cost of corruption in Africa. It impedes development as well as increases the poverty level making the governments unable to minimize it, as asserted by Hope & Chikulo. Corrupt activities span a wide scale ranging from petty corruption involving bribes for accomplishment of bureaucratic procedure to devastatingly large scale in which considerable sums of money are exchanged for preferential access or treatment.
Sectors Involved in Corruption
The mostly affected government sectors include finance managerial, government offices, resource extraction distribution and allocation and other sectors related to the disbursement of funds through local projects.
Case study: Oil Scandal in Nigeria
Corruption in 2012
In the year 2012, Nigeria recorded the biggest oil scandal summing to about $ 6.8 bn. It was reported by graft watchdogs that multinational oil firms in Nigeria had agreed to pay $1,092 bn to the government for oil block OPL 245. These funds were later transferred to Malabu Oil and Gas which is owned by the former Oil minister, Mr. Dan Etete, who was a former oil minister under the late General Sani Abacha. According to MediaNews in Nigeria, it was stated that Jonathan gave the order on the payment of money. Moreover, it was alleged that some huge chunk of money ended up in the bank accounts of business associates and cronies of the government officials, as explained by Otusanya, Ajibolade & Omolehinwa.
According to Bayart, African ground of corruption has the famous and rich as the main players. Nigerian officials refused to respond on the issue of money laundering; evidently showing that all the personnel in the government tried as much as possible either to protect their involvement or give any information that would have led to successful investigation of the oil scandal as explained by Haerens. Clearly, this gives African face of corruption.
Corruption In Africa In Relation To Oil Scandal In Nigeria
Reflecting on the many oil scandals that have happened in Nigeria, and others even resulting into deaths of innocent civilians and worse than ever the most recent one that hit the news headline of many nations in the world, it has been a habit for those ones in power to get involved in corruption and later protect themselves, as explained by Tent & Jones. Most Africans countries follow these trends. . As is the case in Nigerian oil, few people of high rank qualify for this. Led by selfishness and greed, they launder large sums of money dumping their country in poverty, as is the case of Nigeria, and other countries such as Mali, DRC Congo, Kenya and many others with rich economic resources. Most citizens of Nigeria were shocked of the scandal that they only heard through media yet any others did not know a little of it due to poor communication and high illiteracy levels. African countries are in the third world and many of them are still undergoing development, illiteracy is high giving advantages of the few educated to exploit others since only a few population know and understand their rights and and are concerned as explained by Wraith & Simpkins.
Nigerian oil scandal is a true picture of the faces of corruption in Africa, where the oppressed have to bear burden of thefts and injustices made by their leaders. Nigeria is among the rich nations with national income generated from oil, but it has slow progress in development, as asserted by Ofoche. Also, Nigerian case study unravels the mismanagement of office, and ignorance of justice through corrupting the judiciary as asserted by Mbaku. This is similar case to the rest of African countries, for instance, in Uganda where once the president ordered the large sum printing of money, in Rwanda where some government of officials participated in genocide and many others.
All this is attributed to the corruption facing not only Nigeria but also Africa at large. Most of the natural resources in Africa are centralized and require trained personnel for mining, extraction and management All over Africa, the faces of corruption are alike hence the Nigerian oil scandal gives a general focus of corruption in Africa.
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