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i) Every data communications network aims at moving a large volume of accurate information through the network. Each communication protocol uses some bits or byte to mark out the start and end of each message, hence the definition of transmission efficiency. Transmission efficiency is defined as the total number of information bits divided by the total number of bits in transmission.

ii) Information bit is a bit transferred from a source user to a telecommunications system for delivery to a destination user while overhead bits are non data bits which are necessary for transmission. They are usually parts of headers and checksums which are not counted as a component of the good put.

  • iii) Channel conditions such as windows size matters. For instance, when using a system defaulting to 16KB TPC fits high speed local networks and low speed networks, but limits throughput on high speed wide area networks.
  • Latency matters. High speed networks are the best. The speed, at which data moves down a T1 line, is dictated by the speed of light in the media.
  • The rate of throughput is also affected by the size of the packet. To increase throughput, the packet size in increased.

iv) Large packet size is better for file transfer since they reduce latency or loss which the end system cannot control.

When running a LAN network, they are some factors that may slow down it. These factors include; network itself, server’s memory, server’s disk and server’s CPU. Therefore, when trying to improve your LAN network, the above factors should be considered.

To improve performance, one may apply some software’s such as network analyzer. Since this is a bit expensive, one can opt to use external tools. One needs to run your benchmark a number of times both at high and low usage times and then obtain the main as well as the maximum. Create to Ram drives on at least two of the fast workstations. Share the Rams drives amongst them. Then copy files from one RAM to the other. This should be done when nobody is using the LAN.  Differences in the times give an indication of whether it is the server or the network traffic has the problem.

A collision occurs if two or more computers on the same segment send data at the same time. Two avoid this, CSMA/CA forces computers to” listen” to the Ethernet before sending to make sure that no other host on the wire is sending.  As jam signal is sent by both of the senders in case a collision is heard. The jam signal indicates to all other devices that they have been a collision thus should not send data. This ensures that devices do not send data simultaneously.

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