The late nineteenth and twentieth century was characterized by industrial revolution and economic growth. This period also witnessed a shift from extensive agricultural production to more promising manufacturing and industrial sectors. However, the period was also challengable to socio-economic development of the minority groups; among these communities were the Africans and the Asians. These immigrant groups found it hard to politically, economically, and socially establish themselves in the white creed dominated land (Espana-Maram, 2006). However, owing to their focus and determination to success and establishing their strongholds in the United States, Asians achieved economic and financial breakthrough in the late 20th century.
Asians faced a number of challenges in the green land (America) from the day of their arrival up to the early 19th century. Their main challenges had socio-economical origin, which, in turn, hampered their growth and development. Racial discrimination and exploitation are at the top of the challenges list (Pai, 1989). This group of immigrants (like the Filipinos) often suffered in the hands of the whites who subjected the Asians to racial discrimination. Asians were racially abused and were treated as slaves in the agricultural farms owned by the whites (Espana-Maram, 2006). In the employment sector, Asian immigrants often suffered discrimination as they were not entitled to professional jobs but, instead, had the work permit restricting them to slavery and servitude. In addition, Asians lacked adequate protection from the American states, thus, making them vulnerable. Asian immigrants also suffered from unequal rights to resources and education. These factors, among others, served as obstacles to their success and growth (Pai, 1989).
Having realized that they were marginalized, the Asian immigrants opted for forming strong social and communal ties in order to foster growth and development as a community. The two main institutions that formed the foundation to communal ties among the Asians were religion and recreation. Through religion, religious support groups were founded to help the members of this minority group in overcoming social challenges. Recreational sites such as dance halls were essential in fostering unity and communal power among the Asians (Espana-Maram, 2006). Besides, through these social gatherings, the Asians had the opportunity to mingle and interact with the whites.
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